To register your child in the local state school you will have to live in the catchment area which means they will be on the local town hall register (padron).
You will also need to supply the school with most of the documents listed below:-
copy of child’s passport or identity document
copy of the child’s vaccination certificates
copy of child’s registration on the town hall register
copy of mother’s passport or other identity document
marriage certificate (if applicable)
social security card
THE SCHOOL STRUCTURE
There is no uniform requirement and the teachers are normally called by their first names.
Schooling in Spain is compulsory from 6 to 16 years. Children start school in the September of the calendar year in which they are 6.
If you are looking for a nursery place, these are usually fee paying and the children may start at three. Most nurseries are usually open from 8am to 5.30pm.
The first 6 years of compulsory education are spent in the primary school (age 6 to 12) called Educacion Primaria. The school hours are 9am to 12.30pm and 3.30pm to 5.00pm, except in June and September when the hours are 9am to 1.00pm only.
The second 6 years are spent in secondary education (age 12 to 18). From age 12 to 16 the students attend Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO), successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate which is necessary for entering further education (vocational or 6th form) or employment.
If students wish to continue education from 16 to 18 years, they may attend the equivalent of the UK 6th form and successful students are awarded a Bachillerato, similar to A levels.